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MOSELEY: It’s Time To Send The CO2-Obsessed Back To Science Class

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Advocates of a hypothesis that there is global warming that humans are causing ridicule those who won’t join their club.  Yet the problem is that our schools have spread lack of understanding throughout our once-great society.  Every institution run by people has been diminished.  So let this be a primer if readers want to understand the hypothesis of global warming or try to free a believer from their fever:

I.    Failing Freshman Statistics

The vast majority of the Earth is not being measured by weather stations.  As we try to compare temperatures earlier in time, the poor coverage grows radically worse the farther back in time we go toward 1880.

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The Earth’s surface measures 196.9 million square miles.  Today, there are an estimated 10,100 weather stations world-wide, in addition to 1,000 free-floating buoys completely useless for measuring climate change.

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That means that if the temperature measurements were spread evenly across the Earth’s surface (they aren’t), there would be 1 weather station for every 19,495 square miles of the Earth’s surface.  That’s almost the size of the State of Maryland (12,407 square miles).

Can today’s pseudo-scientists measure trends in the planet’s temperature?  No.    Here’s why:

First, the vast majority of the Earth’s surface is not being measured.

Second, a statistically valid sample, must be a random sample.  You must take 196.9 million temperature measurements and average 196.9 million temperature measurements to come up with a single global average.

We can only resort to a smaller sample if the sample is random.  But it is not.  Any first-year student in undergraduate science would get an “F” if he tried to use a non-random sample to extrapolate the Earth’s overall global temperature.

But it gets worse.  Third, the temperature as a serious instrument of scientific measurement – as opposed to a toy or novelty — dates only to 1880.  That’s 139 years of temperature records.  A standardized, calibrated instrument of consistent manufacture using temperature scales started providing useful records only from 1880.

But in 1880, careful, historical, temperature records only started in a few large cities in Western Europe and the Northeast United States.  I don’t mean that someone was using a thermometer.  I mean carefully keeping precise, historical records to be maintained for posterity.

Fourth, how can we compare temperature records from 1970 to 1910 when the locations being measured were not the same in 1910 as in 1970?  The number and locations being measured were concentrated in Western Europe and Northeastern North America.

This is why free-floating buoys are useless (for this purpose).  We cannot compare the temperature records from one year to the next, because they are not measuring the same place year to year.  The 1,000 buoys, 7,000 ships, and various airplanes may be good for monitoring “weather” — the movement of air masses and changes in pressure driving weather systems — but useless for measuring the planet’s temperature over the long haul.  (And that is not “random.”  Letting buoys drift does not constitute a truly random sample, starting from scratch for each measurement.)

Measurements from satellites systematically disagree with measurements at the Earth’s surface.  Pseudo-scientists “adjust” (a.k.a. falsify) satellite data to hide this problem.

Fifth, temperature measurements of planet Earth would get an “F” grade in Freshman statistics.  And that’s before we get into missing measurements when stations malfunction, temperature stations at airports in the exhaust of jet engines of airplanes taking off, next to fire department barbecues, next to industrial air conditioning exhaust, near asphalt or brick heat sinks, or in heat islands.  And then there are the 80%+ weather stations that don’t meet the required standards, especially for site locations.  And then there is the outright fraud in the temperature measurements that have been exposed.

Sixth, since most weather stations are at airports, we are measuring the transition in aviation from small propeller planes, to large propeller planes, to small jet engine airplanes, to massive jumbo jets.  There are weather stations actually in the line of jet exhaust at the end of runways being blasted with super-heated jet exhaust.  But notice that airplanes have changed over the decades.  So the temperature of the heat from aviation operations is much hotter now with jumbo jets than in 1930 with small propeller planes.  And the quantity of take-offs and landings is dramatically larger.  The Earth is not getting warmer.  The airplanes blowing exhaust into the airport weather stations are getting bigger and more frequent per day.

So has the Earth warmed since 1880?  We haven’t the slightest clue.  And before 1880, “proxy” measurements are completely unscientific.  No, you can’t use tree rings or sediment layers, because you can’t measure things with a margin of error vastly wider than the small changes you are trying to discern.  Consistent levels of precision with your instruments of measure is a fundamental precept of science.  Where tree rings are imprecise, you cannot use them to calculate precise analysis.  No one knows if the Earth has warmed or cooled, and anyone who tries to say they do either doesn’t know science or hopes you don’t know science.

II.   The Fatal Flaw:  Air Travels

The real issue is that air does not stay still.  One of the defining characteristics of the atmosphere is that it is constantly in motion.  Air masses (weather) travel around.  So a weather station in Los Angeles may show an unusually high temperature because the colder air up and moved somewhere else.  But there is no net change for the planet as a whole.

III.   The Ever-Churning Atmosphere Cools the Earth

When heated, “hot air rises.”  Technically, the gases in a particular air mass expand  when heated.  When gases expand, that air mass becomes less dense than the air on either side or above it.  The pocket of warm air rises — driven by denser, heavier air forcing its way down underneath.

This is what cools the Earth.  This is the process that drives thunderstorms and hurricanes.

Convection operates as an air conditioner for the planet.  Air heated near the surface rises.  Warmth at the Earth’s surface is carried upward, where it is released.  Heat is transported up towards space.  This conveyor belt will cycle faster if free-floating CO2 absorbs more heat.

But the higher we go in altitude, the thinner the air is.  At 30,000 feet, the air is only 30% of the air pressure at the Earth’s surface.  So when gas molecules radiate heat in the form of electromagnetic energy, the probability that the energy will exit the atmosphere, leave planet Earth entirely,  and radiate out into space increases with altitude.

The chance the heat will travel down is the same as the chance it will travel out into space.  But the atmosphere is thinner above than below, so a significant fraction of the heat energy will leave the planet instead of hitting other air molecules.

IV.     There is no Greenhouse Effect in the Open Atmosphere

The “greenhouse” metaphor is a fatally flawed idea.  A greenhouse works by trapping air in an enclosed container.  The air inside is warmed by sunshine.  But the trapped air cannot move  So the air heated by sunlight grows hotter inside than outside.

Now, imagine hooligans steal the glass panels out of a greenhouse.  They carry glass panels around randomly.  Will there be a greenhouse effect?  No. The air inside is no longer trapped.  There is no “green house effect” in the open atmosphere, where gases are free to circulate.

V.    Carbon Dioxide is Not a Blanket

A blanket works by trapping warmth generated by your body.  If you put a blanket out in the forest in the Winter snow, the blanket will be just as cold as the snow.  If a blanket floated up from your bed and floated around the room it would never trap warmth.

So carbon dioxide does not have a ‘blanket’ effect.  It does not stay at the Earth’s surface.  Cooler air drops down from above as the hotter air at the surface changes places.  This circulation is called convection by junior high school science teachers.

VI.   That’s Why Global Warming Is Not Scientific

Therefore, we cannot perform any experimentation of how carbon dioxide may play a role in global temperature.  We can observe CO2 trapped in a container in a laboratory.  But that tells us nothing about what happens when CO2 is floating freely in a complex planet-wide atmospheric system.

There has never been a single experiment testing the hypothesis of human-caused climate change.  But such an experiment would be an impossibility.  Remember that all other variables would have to be controlled and kept constant, when they are not constant.

Scientists would literally need to compare Earth A to Earth B to see the planet-wide effects of increasing carbon dioxide in only Earth A but not Earth B.  Is there a greenhouse effect on Venus?  We would actually have to run a comparison between Venus A and Venus B to do real science.  (What advocates are trying to do is compare an earlier time period with a current time period on the same Earth.  This fails, however, because all other variables are not the same.  the Earth’s orbit changes over time, causing the ice ages and inter-glacial warm periods.  So a 1,000 year period on Earth in the past is different from a recent 1,000 year period even on the same Earth.)

Opinion

President Trump Must Consider Annihilating the GOP to Reverse Electoral Impropriety

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While vote fraud whistleblowers are putting their freedom and their reputations on the line to expose an unprecedented assault on American democracy, the GOP leadership class is getting ready to capitulate.

Republican leaders at the state level, who could reject the fraudulent official election results and choose pro-Trump electors under lawful authority granted to them under the 12th Amendment of the Constitution, are instead announcing declarations of fealty. Lawmakers in contested states such as Pennsylvania, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Arizona have pledged total and complete compliance with the rigging of this election, announcing to their enemies publicly that they lack the backbone to overturn their historic vote steal.

“I don’t see us in any serious way addressing a change in electors,” said Rusty Bowers, Arizona’s Republican House speaker, announcing that he is effectively spitting in the faces of constituents begging him to use his constitutionally-valid powers to stop the steal. “They are mandated by statute to choose according to the vote of the people.”

“The Pennsylvania General Assembly does not have and will not have a hand in choosing the state’s presidential electors or in deciding the outcome of the presidential election,” leading Republican legislative leaders, state Sen. Jake Corman and Rep. Kerry Benninghoff, wrote before the election. They remain steadfast in their unwillingness to act even after Democrats have made a mockery of the electoral process in their state.

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Republican legislative leaders in Michigan have pledged total fealty even as terror campaigns are launched against Republican officials in Wayne County for lawmakers who refuse to certify a dubious vote. They also applauded the Michigan state board of canvassers for certifying earlier this week, after whistleblowers attested to the grotesque fraud that occurred in Detroit and throughout the state, calling the immense betrayal “America at work.”

“Speaker Chatfield’s position on this has been clear from the beginning — the candidate who receives the most votes will receive Michigan’s electoral votes,” said Gideon D’Assandro, a spokesman for Michigan House Speaker Lee Chatfield. Meanwhile, Michigan Senate Majority Leader Mike Shirkey is throwing cold water on investigations about inner-city vote-rigging, saying that “it is not the expectation that our analysis will result in any change in the outcome.”

Chatfield and Shirkey are at the mercy of a deranged state attorney general in Dana Nessel, who threatened the lawmakers with criminal prosecution for merely accepting a meeting with President Donald Trump. The lawmakers are in a position where they won’t just receive threats and hatred from mobs of deranged left-wing extremists empowered by monolithic Big Tech platforms. They will also potentially be criminally prosecuted, based on the conspiracy theories of a histrionic LGBT activist on a power trip, for performing their duties under the Constitution.

Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell is already making deals to get his establishment cronies into the administration of his old chamber buddy, president-elect Joe Biden. Sens. Ted Cruz (R-TX), Lindsey Graham (R-SC), and Chuck Grassley (R-IA) pushed for the Biden team to begin receiving intelligence briefs, believing that it is good for the country to go along with the media’s charade. Trump eventually capitulated after a successful left-wing terror campaign against the GSA chief.

The president does have one final trump card that he can use to enforce compliance and prevent cowardly Republican leaders from submitting: the total annihilation of the GOP.

Republican establishment figures like House Minority Speaker Kevin McCarthy (R-CA) have the audacity to point to 2020 being a break-out election for Republicans with underprivileged groups as if the party is viable with or without Trump as its figurehead. They ignore that it was Trump’s unconventional approach – shattering the conventional wisdom of every pollster, consultant, and prognosticator in the business – that brought the minorities on board.

It was President Trump’s authenticity, his unabashed defense of American greatness, and projection of strength against a bankrupt political class that opened the GOP tent to groups typically dominated by Democrats. It wasn’t politically correct pandering, parading around a handful of corporate-funded tokens, or inclusive talking points that led to this sea change. As soon as the Trump era is shuttered, the GOP establishment will revert back to the recipe of failure faster than you can say: “2024 presidential nominee Nimrata Randhawa.”

President Trump must play hardball to defend his legacy, which is now inextricably tied with the fate of America. He must make it clear to Republican leaders that if this steal is not overturned, then the Republican Party goes down with him. The prospect of a viable independent “America First” political party led by Trump and bolstered by his loyalists in the GOP would make the likes of McCarthy and McConnell fall in line rather quickly. Republican leaders are feeling pressure from the other side, and now the Silent Majority must flex its muscle to keep them from faltering.

Millions of Trump supporters being whipped into a frenzy demanding that their Republican lawmakers show fealty to this new collective would effectively destroy the GOP. It may help the Democrats temporarily, but the short-term losses would be worth it to end Republican cowardice forever. The master maneuverer in the White House has the political capital to pull off such a gambit, and right now, he has nothing to lose. It’s time to bring the Republican establishment to heel, once and for all, by going nuclear on its leaders.

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